The Application Of A Flexible Learning Model To Enhance Engagement With Digital Technologies And Augmented Reality In Language Learning


  • John Raymond Bostock Edge Hill University



Flexible Learning, Language Teaching, Second Language Acquisition


Digital Technologies (DT) including Augmented Reality (AR) provide advantages for educational provision in terms of flexible access and enhanced presentation of materials. They also continue to proffer a formidable yet exciting challenge to established teaching and learning practices. In this paper an attempt is made to research the impact of using DT and AR activities on the experiences of students who are learning modern languages generally and Spanish specifically in one tertiary Institution. Didactic methods of teaching have been superseded by the adoption of student centred learning, i.e. a collaborative and interactive learning style where the teacher is the planner, sequencer and facilitator who guides the students in achieving their learning objectives. Teacher centred, or didactic methods may have their advantages particularly when delivering explanations but can be over used and do not generally allow for active student involvement or an opportunity to use the ideas being taught. It is suggested in this study that in order to gain the maximum benefit from the use of DT and AR, there are specific curriculum and pedagogical issues to be addressed. A more focused understanding and approach is enabled by the use of the flexible learning model particularly with regard to how students learn, the role of the lecturer, the planning and development of course materials and the accessibility and reliability of both software and hardware. In addition, a review of the theories of Second Language Acquisition also provides a sound basis for researching language learning and appropriate pedagogies. Language teaching continues to adapt, respond and challenge traditional teaching and learning styles and recommendations for successful integration of DT and AR are suggested.

Author Biography

John Raymond Bostock, Edge Hill University

Senior Lecturer in Teaching and Learning Development


Bostock, J. (2018) A Model of Flexible Learning: Exploring Interdependent Relationships Between Students, Lecturers, Resources and Contexts in Virtual Spaces in the Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice Vol.6, Issue 1, 12-18

Bostock, J., & Wood, J. (2012). Teaching 14-19: A Handbook. McGraw Hill, Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Bostock, J., & Wood, J. (2014). Supporting Student Transitions 14-19: Approaches to Teaching and Learning. London: Routledge

Collis, B. and Moonen, J. (2002) Flexible learning in a digital world, London: Kogan Page

Cook, V. (2016) (Eds) Second Language Learning and Language Teaching, London: Routledge

Glenn, C. W, (2018) Adding the Human Touch to Asynchronous Online Learning in the Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice 19 (4) Sage
Goodyear, V. and Dudley, D. (2015) ā€œIā€™m a Facilitator of Learning!ā€ Understanding What Teachers and Students Do Within Student-Centred Physical Education Models in Quest 67(3)

Lightbrown, P. and Spada, N. (2013) (Eds)How Languages are Learned: Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers Oxford: Oxford University Press

Olusegun, S. (2015) Constructivism Learning Theory: A Paradigm for Teaching and Learning in the Journal of Research & Method in Education 5, (6) (Nov. - Dec. 2015), 66-70

Saville Troike, M. and Barto, K (2016) (Eds) Introducing Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge Introductions to Language and Linguistics) Cambridge University Press

Schwieter, J.W. and Benati, A. (2019) (Eds) The Cambridge Handbook of Language Learning, C, New York: Cambridge University Press

Sweller, J. (2005) Implications of Cognitive Load Theory for Multimedia Learning in Mayer, E. (Eds) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, , New York: Cambridge University Press

Sweller, J. (2011) Cognitive Load Theory in Mestre J.P and Ross, B. H, (2011) (Eds) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 55, 37-76, Elsevier

Towell, R. and Hawkins, R. (1994) Approaches to Second Language Acquisition, Bristol, Multilingual Matters Limited

Vrasidas, C., & McIsaac, M. S. (2001). Integrating Technology in Teaching and Teacher Education: Implications for Policy and Curriculum Reform. Educational Media International, 38, 127-132.






Original Research