Helping Student Nurses Learn the Craft of Compassionate Care: A Relational Model
Keywords:craftsmanship, compassionate pedagogy, nursing, tacit knowledge, craft mastery
This on the horizon article proposes a relational model for enabling the development of skills and attributes associated with ‘compassionate craftsmanship’ in the developing nurse. This pedagogic model was informed by findings from the author’s research with patients, nurses and students, all of which focused on aspects of care and compassion. While the studies were located in varying contexts and involved diverse stakeholders, findings consistently revealed a connection between the provision of compassionate person-centred care and the development of tacit knowledge in the nursing profession. These will be teased out and explicated in a future paper; this article focuses on the proposed model.
The proposed model was developed by drawing on the literature of craftsmanship in a range of disciplines, where tacit knowledge is commonly regarded as a vital underpinning factor. In consequence, the compassionate craftsmanship model emphasises the importance of tacit knowledge in the design of appropriate pedagogic approaches to foster an ethos of compassionate craftsmanship in nursing. The very nature of tacit knowledge, however, means it is a challenging educational area to address. Hence the model, which illuminates a series of inter-related enabling factors that underpin the development of key abilities associated with compassionate craftsmanship. It also highlights anticipated long-term outcomes for those who develop and apply these in clinical practice.
The model will be of particular interest to healthcare practitioners, nurse leaders and those working in higher education. While the underpinning abilities and associated outcomes are specific to nursing, they are likely to be relevant to different disciplines where effective interaction with others is essential.
Adamson, E., & Dewar, B. (2015). Compassionate Care: Student nurses' learning through reflection and the use of story. Nurse education in practice, 15(3), 155-161.
Adamson, E., Pow, J., Houston, F., & Redpath, P. (2017). Exploring the experiences of patients attending day hospitals in the rural Scotland: capturing the patient's voice. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 26(19-20), 3044-3055.
Benner, P., Tanner, C., Chesla, C., & Dawson Books. (2012). Expertise in nursing practice : Caring, clinical judgment & ethics (2nd ed.). United Kingdom: Dawson Books
Berger, R. (2003). An Ethic of Excellence: Building a Culture of Craftsmanship with Students: ERIC.
Browning, D. M., Meyer, E. C., Truog, R. D., & Solomon, M. Z. (2007). Difficult conversations in health care: cultivating relational learning to address the hidden curriculum. Academic Medicine, 82(9), 905-913.
Carmel, S. (2013). The craft of intensive care medicine. Sociology of health & illness, 35(5), 731-745.
Coeckelbergh, M. (2014). Moral craftsmanship. In The ethics of creativity (pp. 46-61 ): Springer.
Cruickshank, S., Adamson, E., Logan, J., & Brackenridge, K. (2010). Using syringe drivers in palliative care within a rural, community setting: capturing the whole experience. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 16(3), 126-132.
Davin, L., Thistlethwaite, J., & Bartle, E. (2018). 'Compassion, the first emotion ditched when I’m busy’. The struggle to maintain our common humanity. MedEdPublish, 7.
Dewar, B., Adamson, E., Smith, S., Surfleet, J., & King, L. (2014). Clarifying misconceptions about compassionate care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(8), 1738-1747.
Dewar, B., & Nolan, M. (2013). Caring about caring: developing a model to implement compassionate relationship centred care in an older people care setting. International journal of nursing studies, 50(9), 1247-1258.
Edinburgh Napier University, & NHS Lothian. (2012). Leadership in compassionate care: final report. Edinburgh.
Edwards, S. D. (1998). The art of nursing. Nursing ethics, 5(5), 393-400.
Frayling, C. (2012). On Craftsmanship: towards a new Bauhaus: Oberon Books.
Green, R., & Bull, R. (2014). Simulated community spaces and nurses' practice preparedness: a thematic inquiry. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(3), e111-e117.
Grimley, K. A. (2017). Never Assume: The Search for Shared Descriptions of Quality Nursing Care. Nurse Leader, 15(6), 413-418.
Janssen, P. P., De Jonge, J., & Bakker, A. B. (1999). Specific determinants of intrinsic work motivation, burnout and turnover intentions: a study among nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(6), 1360-1369
Jenner, C. A. (1997). The art of nursing: A concept analysis. Paper presented at the Nursing Forum.
LeVasseur, J. J. (1999). Toward an understanding of art in nursing. Advances in nursing science, 21(4), 48-63
MacArthur, J., Wilkinson, H., Gray, M. A., & Matthews-Smith, G. (2017). Embedding compassionate care in local NHS practice: developing a conceptual model through realistic evaluation. Journal of Research in Nursing, 22(1-2), 130-147. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.napier.ac.uk/10.1177/1744987116679052 .
Mackintosh, C. (2006). Caring: the socialisation of pre-registration student nurses: a longitudinal qualitative descriptive study. International journal of nursing studies, 43(8), 953-962.
McSherry, R., Timmins, F., de Vries, J. M., & McSherry, W. (2018). A reflective qualitative appreciative inquiry approach to restoring compassionate care deficits at one United Kingdom health care site. Journal of Nursing Management.
Meal, A. G., & Timmons, S. J. (2012). Reclaiming craftsmanship in nursing. Nurse education today, 32(5), 479-481.
Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization science, 5(1), 14-37
Nonaka, I., & Von Krogh, G. (2009). Perspective—Tacit knowledge and knowledge conversion: Controversy and advancement in organizational knowledge creation theory. Organization science, 20(3), 635-652.
Parliamentary Health Service Ombudsman. (2011). Care and Compassion: Report of the Health Service Ombudsman on ten investigations into NHS Care of Older People. London.
Polanyi, M. (2009). The tacit dimension: University of Chicago press.
Raingruber, B., & Wolf, T. (2015). Nurse perspectives regarding the meaningfulness of oncology nursing practice. Clinical journal of oncology nursing, 19(3), 292-296.
Sennett, R. (2008). The craftsman: Yale University Press.
Sinclair, S., Norris, J. M., McConnell, S. J., Chochinov, H. M., Hack, T. F., Hagen, N. A., . . . Bouchal, S. R. (2016). Compassion: a scoping review of the healthcare literature. BMC palliative care, 15(1), 6.
Stucki, G., Bickenbach, J., Gutenbrunner, C., & Melvin, J. (2018). Rehabilitation: the health strategy of the 21st century. Journal of rehabilitation medicine, 50(4), 309-316.
Taylor, S. (2012). Leadership craft, leadership art: Springer.
Thorlindsson, T., Halldorsson, V., & Sigfusdottir, I. D. (2018). The Sociological Theory of Craftsmanship: An Empirical Test in Sport and Education. Sociological Research Online, 23(1), 114-135
Timmins, F., & de Vries, J. M. (2015). Follow the yellow brick road‐the compassion deficit debate where to from here? Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(19-20), 2689-2694.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice has made best effort to ensure accuracy of the contents of this journal, however makes no claims to the authenticity and completeness of the articles published. Authors are responsible for ensuring copyright clearance for any images, tables etc which are supplied from an outside source.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.